HIV in India

  • HIV epidemic in India is concentrated among High Risk Groups and heterogeneous in its distribution meaning that the HIV prevalence among the High Risk Groups, i.e., Female Sex Workers, Injecting Drug Users, Men who have Sex with Men and Transgender is about 20 times higher than the general population.
  • The HIV prevalence as per HSS 2010 are: female sex workers (FSW) 2.61%; men having sex with men (MSM) 5.01%; injecting drug users (IDU) 5.91 %; and transgender 18.80 % .
  • Though India is a country with low HIV prevalence, it has the third largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS.
  • NACP-III has placed the highest priority on preventive efforts. At the same time, it seeks to integrate prevention with care, support and treatment through a four- pronged strategy:
    1. Preventing new infections in high risk groups and general population through saturation of coverage of high risk groups with targeted interventions and scaled up interventions in the general population;
    2. Providing greater care, support and treatment to larger number of PLHA (People Living with HIV/AIDS).
    3. Strengthening the infrastructure system and human resources in prevention, care, support and treatment programmes at the district, state and national levels; and
    4. Strengthening the nationwide Strategic Information Management System.
  • We are now in the fourth phase of the National AIDS Control Program (NACP IV) that extends from 2013 – 2017.
  • NACO (National AIDS Control Organisation) estimates that about 20.9 lakh people are currently infected with HIV/AIDS.
  • Based on the HIV Estimation 2012, India has demonstrated an overall reduction of 57% in the annual new HIV infections (among adult population)
  • 86% are in the age-group of 15-49 years.
  • Of all HIV infections, 39% (8.16 lakh) are among women.
  • About 85% transmissions are sexual transmitted.
  • It is estimated that around 1.16 lakh NEW HIV infections among adults and around 14,500 NEW infections among children occurred during 2011. Of the 1.16 lakh estimated new infections in 2011 among adults, the six high prevalence states account for 31% of new infections.
  • The high prevalence States India – Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, Manipulation and Nagaland account for more than70% of all HIV infected population in the country.
  • The state of Andhra Pradesh has the highest prevalence of HIV infected in the country.
  • India is on track to achieve the global targets of ‘Zero New Infections, Zero AIDS-related deaths & Zero discrimination’.
  • UNICEF collaborates with the Government of India and other partners in four key areas we call the 4 Ps:
    1. Primary prevention
    2.Prevention of parent-to-child transmission (PPTCT)
    3.Paediatric HIV/AIDS
    4.Protection, care and support for affected children
  • Stigma towards people living with HIV is widespread. The misconception that AIDS only affects men who have sex with men, sex workers, and injecting drug users strengthens and perpetuates existing discrimination.
  • The most affected groups, often marginalized, have little or no access to legal protection of their basic human rights. Addressing the issue of human rights violations and creating an enabling environment that increases knowledge and encourages behavior change are thus extremely important to the fight against AIDS.